Split factor revealed for Best Practice in Earthing Design

Earthing Designs

Split factor revealed for Best Practice in Earthing Design

I'm often asked about Reduction factors or 'Split factor' when looking at Earthing Designs.  So what do these factors refer to? Why are they necessary? And when should you apply them?

What is a Split Factor (or Reduction)?

In Earthing terms, the Split Factor can be defined as the 'split' or proportion of fault energy that chooses to use soil conduction as its preferred route back to the source, compared with how much of the energy takes alternative route(s).  Alternative routes could be the cable sheath arrangements, CPCs or any other conductive structures intentionally or unintentionally bonded. Read More

Codes that matter for Earthing Design Standards in Railways

Earthing Designs

Codes that matter for Earthing Design Standards in Railways

For the past few years. GreyMatters has been fortunate enough to support the rail electrification and upgrade programmes across the UK for Earthing Design. And maintaining a consistent approach across a building programme of this scale can be a massive engineering headache for all design teams concerned. Especially, when Earthing Design Standards touches on so many disciplines along the way - from civils, OLE (Overhead line equipment), signals, EMC, 3rd parties, ecologies, geophysical as well as the more obvious general E&B (earthing and bonding). Read More

Is prevention better than cure? | Lightning Strike Prevention

Lightning Protection Design

Is prevention better than cure? | Lightning Strike Prevention

The most exciting concept to come out of the Lightning Protection sector for centuries is the idea of 'Lightning Strike Prevention'.

Now, preventing lightning itself is outside the scope of any working installation today.  And maybe something for the scientific communities to think over. However, preventing an STRIKE-attachment to a structure IS something that is here and now! Read More

Electrical Earthing Testing in Urban Environments

Earth Testing

Electrical Earthing Testing in Urban Environments

Electrical earthing testing.  We are asked frequently - How do you test an Earth in London?

Here’s the scenario.  You’re faced with Electrical earthing testing a substation that is located right in the middle of a heavily built-up area. With hard surfaces everywhere together with congested buried infrastructure in every direction.

Any lead deployment is invariably obstructed by something, e.g. roads, cars, walls, buildings, etc.  And, assuming the leads can be accommodated. A test is likely to suffer in-ground noise and/or interference from the city’s / town’s infrastructure.  Not to mention the curious passers-by: who would like nothing more than to see you struggle for a laugh by stealing your test leads when you’re back is turned. Read More

Isolated LPS Design - Isolated vs Non-isolated IEC 62305

Lightning Protection Design

Isolated LPS Design - Isolated vs Non-isolated IEC 62305

Isolated LPS

An example of a relatively recent innovation in protection concept introduced to the IEC standard IEC 62305. Is the Isolated LPS (Lightning Protection System).   The Isolated LPS can be described as protection measures (e.g. lightning conductors) that achieve sufficient 'separation' distance, electrically and/or physically, between that which is conducting the Lightning Current; and that which is to be protected from the effects of the lightning current.  This separation distance is what gives this methodology its label i.e. 'Isolated' design.  It does NOT mean the system is electrically isolated from earth (a common misconception).  It just refers to the physical distance achieved between the lightning current and the item being protected. Read More

Lightning Risk - Looking ahead at future trend

Lightning

Lightning Risk - Looking ahead at future trend

Lightning Risk. In a world increasingly driven by quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) techniques it's important to understand what the predicted impacts are as a result of our current trajectory (as humans), i.e. the direction of travel that the population of planet earth seems to be following - in terms of climate change:

Increasing Lightning Risk trend

From recent research. Some in the Lightning community are predicting strike frequency increasing by +12% to +24% : the phenomenon appears to be worsening with climate change (2016). Read More

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